Saturday, August 4, 2012

Day 11 – Wednesday, June 13th, 2012

A hearty Scottish breakfast and off to MacDuff on the Northern Coast.

Our first stop was at the site of the Battle of Culloden.  Our guide was brilliant in describing the relevance, history and geography of the Battle.  Nora's Clan Stewart was present.

The Battle of Culloden was the final confrontation of the 1745 Jacobite Rising.  On 16 April 1746, the Jacobite forces of Charles Edward Stuart fought loyalist troops commanded by William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland near Inverness in the Scottish Highlands.  The loyalist victory at Culloden decisively halted the Jacobite intent to overthrow the House of Hanover and restore the House of Stuart to the British throne; Charles Stuart never mounted any further attempts to challenge Hanoverian power in Britain.  The conflict was the last pitched battle fought on British soil.

Charles Stuart's Jacobite army consisted largely of Scottish Highlanders, as well as a number of Lowland Scots and a small detachment of Englishmen from the Manchester Regiment.  The Jacobites were supported and supplied by the Kingdom of France and French and Irish units loyal to France were part of the Jacobite army.  The government force was mostly English, along with a significant number of Scottish Lowlanders and Highlanders, a battalion of Ulster men from Ireland, and a small number of Hessians from Germany and Austrians.  The battle on Culloden Moor was both quick and bloody, taking place within an hour.  Following an unsuccessful Highland charge against the government lines, the Jacobites were routed and driven from the field.

Between 1,500 and 2,000 Jacobites were killed or wounded in the brief battle, while government losses were lighter with 50 dead and 259 wounded.  The aftermath of the battle and subsequent crackdown on Jacobitism was brutal, earning Cumberland the sobriquet "Butcher".  Efforts were subsequently taken to further integrate the comparatively wild Highlands into the Kingdom of Great Britain; civil penalties were introduced to weaken Gaelic culture and attack the Scottish clan system.

Charles Edward Stuart, known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie" or the "Young Pretender", arrived in Scotland in 1745 to foment a rebellion of Stuart sympathizers against the House of Hanover.  He successfully raised forces, mainly of Scottish Highland clansmen, and defeated the Hanoverian Army stationed in Scotland at the Battle of Prestonpans.  The city of Edinburgh was occupied, but the castle held out and most of the Scottish population remained hostile to the rebels; others, while sympathetic, were reluctant to lend overt support to a movement whose chances were unproven.  The British government recalled forces from the war with France in Flanders to deal with the rebellion.

After a lengthy wait, Charles persuaded his generals that English Jacobites would stage an uprising in support of his cause.  He was convinced that France would launch an invasion of England as well.  His army of around 5,000 invaded England on 8 November 1745. They advanced through Carlisle and Manchester to Derby and a position where they appeared to threaten London.  It is alleged that King George II made plans to decamp to Hanover, but there is no evidence for this and the king is on record as stating that he would lead the troops against the rebels himself if they approached London.  The Jacobites met only token resistance.  There was, however, little support from English Jacobites, and the French invasion fleet was still being assembled.  The armies of General George Wade and of William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, were approaching.  In addition to the militia, London was defended by nearly 6,000 infantry, 700 horse and 33 artillery pieces and the Jacobites received (fictitious) reports of a third army closing on them.  The Jacobite general, Lord George Murray, and the Council of War insisted on returning to join their growing force in Scotland.  On 6 December 1745, they withdrew, with Charles Edward Stuart leaving command to Murray.

On the long march back to Scotland, the Highland Army wore out its boots and demanded all the boots and shoes of the townspeople of Dumfries as well as money and hospitality.  The Jacobites reached Glasgow on 25 December.  There they reprovisioned, having threatened to sack the city, and were joined by a few thousand additional men.  They then defeated the forces of General Henry Hawley at the Battle of Falkirk.

The Duke of Cumberland arrived in Edinburgh on 30 January to take over command of the government army from General Hawley.  He then marched north along the coast, with the army being supplied by sea.  Six weeks were spent at Aberdeen training.

The King's forces continued to pressure Charles.  He retired north, losing men and failing to take Stirling Castle or Fort William.  But he invested Fort Augustus and Fort George in Invernessshire in early April.  Charles then took command again, and insisted on fighting a defensive action.

The bulk of the Jacobite army was forced to join by their clan chiefs, landlords or feudal superiors.  In consequence, it mattered little whether the average clansman believed in the Jacobite cause or not. Because of recruiting in this manner, when the campaign began to fizzle out in the lead-up to the battle, desertion was a major problem in the Highland regiments within the Jacobite army.

One of the fundamental problems with the Jacobite army was the lack of trained officers.  The lack of professionalism and training was readily apparent; even the colonels of the Macdonald regiments of Clanranald and Keppoch considered their men to be uncontrollable.

The Government army at the Battle of Culloden was made up of infantry, cavalry, and artillery.  Of the army's 16 infantry battalions present, four were Scottish units and one was Irish.  The officers of the infantry were from the upper classes and aristocracy, while the rank and file was made up of poor agricultural workers.  On the outbreak of the Jacobite rising, extra incentives were given to lure recruits to fill the ranks of depleted units.  For instance, on 6 September 1745, every new recruit who joined the Guards before 24 September was given £6, and those who joined in the last days of the month were given £4.  Regiments were named after their Colonel.  In theory, an infantry regiment would comprise up to ten companies of up to 70 men. They would then be 815 strong, including officers.  However, regiments were rarely anywhere near this large, and at the Battle of Culloden, the regiments were not much larger than about 400 men.

The Government cavalry arrived in Scotland in January 1746.  They were not combat experienced, having spent the preceding years on anti-smuggling duties.  A standard cavalryman had a Land Service pistol and a carbine.  However, the main weapon used by the British cavalry was a sword with a 35-inch blade.

The Royal Artillery vastly out-performed their Jacobite counterparts during the Battle of Culloden. However, up until this point in the campaign, the Government artillery had performed dismally.  The main weapon of the artillery was the 3-pounder.  This weapon had a range of 500 yards and could fire two kinds of shot: round iron and canister.  The other weapon used was the Coehorn mortar. These had a calibre of 4⅖inches.

On 30 January, the Duke of Cumberland arrived in Scotland to take command of the government forces after the previous failures by Cope and Hawley.  Cumberland decided to wait out the winter, and moved his troops northwards to Aberdeen.  Around this time, the army was increased by 5,000 Hessian troops.  The Hessian force, led by Prince Frederick of Hesse, took up position to the south to cut off any path of retreat for the Jacobites.  The weather had improved to such an extent by 8 April that Cumberland again resumed the campaign.  The government army reached Cullen on 11 April, where it was joined by six battalions and two cavalry regiments.  Days later, the government army approached the River Spey, which was guarded by a Jacobite force of 2,000, made up of the Jacobite cavalry, the Lowland regiments and over half of the army's French regulars.  The Jacobites quickly turned and fled, first towards Elgin and then to Nairn.  By 14 April, the Jacobites had evacuated Nairn, and Cumberland camped his army at Balblair just west of the town.

The Jacobite forces of about 5,400 left their base at Inverness, leaving most of their supplies, and assembled 5 miles to the east near Drummossie, around 12 miles before Nairn.  Charles Edward Stuart had decided to personally command his forces and took the advice of his adjutant general, Secretary O’Sullivan, who chose to stage a defensive action at Drummossie Moor, a stretch of open moorland enclosed between the walled Culloden enclosures to the North and the walls of Culloden Park to the South.  Lord George Murray "did not like the ground" and with other senior officers pointed out the unsuitability of the rough moorland terrain which was highly advantageous to the Duke with the marshy and uneven ground making the famed Highland charge somewhat more difficult while remaining open to Cumberland’s powerful artillery.  They had argued for a guerrilla campaign, but Charles Edward Stuart refused to change his mind.

On 15 April, the government army celebrated Cumberland's twenty-fifth birthday by issuing two gallons of brandy to each regiment.  At Murray's suggestion, the Jacobites tried that evening to repeat the success of Prestonpans by carrying out a night attack on the government encampment.  Murray proposed that they set off at dusk and march to Nairn.  The Jacobite force however started out well after dark at about 20:00.  Murray led the force cross country with the intention of avoiding government outposts.  This however led to very slow going in the dark.  Murray's one time aide-de-camp, James Chevalier de Johnstone later wrote, "This march across country in a dark night which did not allow us to follow any track, and accompanied with confusion and disorder".  By the time the leading troop had reached Culraick, still 2 miles from where Murray's wing was to cross the River Nairn and encircle the town, there was only one hour left before dawn.

After a heated council with other officers, Murray concluded that there was not enough time to mount a surprise attack and that the offensive should be aborted.  Sullivan went to inform Charles Edward Stuart of the change of plan, but missed the prince in the dark.  Meanwhile, instead of retracing his path back, Murray led his men left, down the Inverness road.  In the darkness, while Murray led one-third of the Jacobite forces back to camp, the other two-thirds continued towards their original objective, unaware of the change in plan.  One account of that night even records that Perth and Drummond made contact with government troops before realizing the rest of the Jacobite force had turned home.  Not long after the exhausted Jacobite forces had made it back to Culloden, reports came of the advancing government troops.  By then, many Jacobite soldiers had dispersed in search of food, while others were asleep in ditches and outbuildings.

However military historian Jeremy Black has contended that even though the Jacobite force had become disordered and lost the element of surprise the night attack retained a worthwhile prospect of success if it had been pressed on with. Black maintains the assault was abandoned while still practicable and if the Jacobites had advanced the conditions would have made British morale vulnerable and disrupted their fire discipline.

Early on a rainy 16 April, the well rested Government army struck camp and at about 5am and set off towards the moorland around Culloden and Drummossie.  Jacobite pickets first sighted the Government advance guard at about 8am, when the advancing army came within 4 miles of Drummossie. Cumberland's informers alerted him that the Jacobite army was forming up about 1 mile from Culloden House—upon Culloden Moor.  At about 11am the two armies were within sight of one another with about 2 miles of open moorland between them.  As the Government forces steadily advanced across the moor, the driving rain and sleet blew from the north-east into the faces of the exhausted Jacobite army.

Cumberland's superior artillery battered the Jacobite lines, while Charles, moved for safety out of sight of his own forces, waited for the Government forces to move.  Inexplicably, he left his forces arrayed under Government fire for over half an hour.  Although the marshy terrain minimized casualties, the morale of the Jacobites began to suffer.  Several clan leaders, angry at the lack of action, pressured Charles to issue the order to charge.  The Clan was first away, but an area of boggy ground in front of them forced them to veer right so that they obstructed the following regiments and the attack was pushed towards the wall.  The Highlanders advanced on the left flank of the Government troops, but were subjected to volleys of musket fire and the artillery which had switched from round shot to grape shot.

Despite this, many Jacobites reached the Government lines, and for the first time a battle was decided by a direct clash between charging highlanders and formed redcoats equipped with muskets and socket bayonets.  The brunt of the Jacobite impact was taken by only two Government regiments—Barrell's 4th Foot and Dejean's 37th Foot.  In a matter of minutes Barrell's regiment lost 17 and suffered 108 wounded, out of a total of 373 officers and men.  Dejean's lost 14 and had 68 wounded, with this unit's left wing taking a disproportionately higher number of casualties.  Barrell's regiment was smashed apart, temporarily losing its colours.  Dejean's was pushed aside, and Sgt. Bristoe's gun detachment, which was placed between the two regiments was easily overrun.  Major-General Huske, who was in command of the Government second line, quickly organised the counter attack.   Huske's counter formed a five battalion strong horseshoe-shaped formation which trapped the Jacobite right wing on three sides.

Located on the Jacobite extreme left wing were the Macdonald regiments.  Popular legend has it that these regiments refused to charge when ordered to do so, due to the perceived insult of being placed on the left wing.  Even so, due to the skewing of the Jacobite front lines, the left wing had a further 200 metres of much boggier ground to cover than the right.  When the Macdonalds charged, their progress was much slower than that of the rest of the Jacobite forces.  Standing on the right of these regiments were the much smaller units of Chisholms and the combined unit of Macleans and Maclachlans.  Every officer in the Chisholm unit was killed or wounded and Col. Lachlan MaclachlanL, who led the combined unit of MacLeans and MacLachlans, was gruesomely killed by a cannon shot.  As the Macdonalds suffered casualties they began to give way.  Immediately Cumberland then pressed the advantage, ordering two troops of Cobham's 10th Dragoons to ride them down.  The boggy ground however impeded the cavalry and they turned to engage the Irish Picquets whom Sullivan had brought up in an attempt to stabilize the deteriorating Jacobite left flank.

With the collapse of the left wing, Murray brought up the Royal Écossois and Kilmarnock's Foot guards who were still at this time unengaged.  However, by the time they had been brought into position, the Jacobite army was in rout.  The Royal Écossois exchanged musket fire with Campbell's 21st and commenced an orderly retreat, moving along the Culwhiniac enclosure in order to shield themselves from artillery fire.

Immediately the half battalion of Highland militia commanded by Captain Colin Campbell of Ballimore which had stood inside the enclosure ambushed the Royal Écossois.  Hawley had previously left this Highland unit behind the enclosure, with orders to avoid contact with the Jacobites, to limit any chance of a friendly fire incident.  In the encounter Campbell of Ballimore was killed along with five of his men.  The result was that the Royal Écossois and Kilmarnock's Foot guards were forced out into the open moor and were rushed at by three squadrons of Kerr's 11th Dragoons.  The fleeing Jacobites must have put up a fight for Kerr's 11th recorded at least 16 horses killed during the entirety of the battle.  The Royal Écossois appear to have retired from the field in two wings.  One part of the regiment surrendered upon the field after suffering 50 killed or wounded, but their colours were not taken and a large number retired from the field with the Lowland regiments.

This stand by the Royal Écossois may have given Charles Edward Stuart the time to make his escape.  At the time when the Macdonald regiments were crumbling and fleeing the field, Stuart seems to have been rallying Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments when Sullivan rode up to Captain Shea who commanded Stuart's bodyguard:  "Yu see all is going to pot.  Yu can be of no great succor, so before a general deroute wch will soon be, Sieze upon the Prince & take him off...".  Shea then led Stuart from the field along with Perth's and Glenbuchat's regiments.  From this point on the fleeing Jacobite forces were split into two groups: the Lowland regiments retired in order southwards, making their way to Ruthven Barracks; the Highland regiments however were cut off by the Government cavalry, and forced to retreat down the road to Inverness.  The result was that they were a perfect target for the Government dragoons.  Bland led the charge against the fleeing Highlanders, giving "Quarter to None but about Fifty French Officers and Soldiers He picked up in his Pursuit".

The total of Jacobite casualties during the battle has been estimated at about 1,500 – 2,000 killed or wounded.  Cumberland's official list of prisoners taken includes 154 Jacobites and 222 "French" prisoners (men from the 'foreign units' in the French service).  Added to the official list of those apprehended were 172 of the Earl of Cromartie's men, captured after a brief engagement the day before near Littleferry.  In striking contrast to the Jacobite losses, the Government forces suffered 50 dead and 259 wounded, although a high proportion of those recorded as wounded are likely to have died of their wounds.  For example, only 29 out of 104 wounded from Barrell's 4th Foot survived to claim pensions.  All six of the artillerymen recorded as wounded died.  The only Government casualty of high rank was Lord Robert Kerr, the son of William Kerr, 3rd Marquess of Lothian.

As the first of the fleeing Highlanders approached Inverness they were met with a battalion of Frasers led by the Master of Lovat.  Tradition states that the Master of Lovat immediately about-turned his men and marched down the road back towards Inverness, with pipes playing and colours flying.  There are however varying traditions as to what happened at the bridge which spans the River Ness.  One tradition is that the Master of Lovat intended to hold the bridge until he was persuaded against it.  Another is that the bridge was seized by a party of Argyll Militia who were involved in a skirmish when blocking the crossing of retreating Jacobites.  While it is almost certain there was a skirmish upon the bridge, it has been proposed that the Master of Lovat shrewdly switched sides and turned upon the fleeing Jacobites. Such an act would explain his remarkable rise in fortune in the years that followed.

Following the battle the Lowland units headed south, towards Corrybrough and made their way to Ruthven Barracks.  The Highland units headed north, towards Inverness and on through to Fort Augustus.  There they were joined by Barisdale's Macdonalds and a small battalion of MacGregors.  The roughly 1,500 men that assembled at Ruthven Barracks received orders from Charles Edward Stuart to the effect that all was lost and to "shift for himself as best he could".  Similar orders must have been received by the Highland units at Fort Augustus.  By 18 April the Jacobite army was disbanded.  Officers and men of the units in the French service made for Inverness, where they surrendered as prisoners of war on 19 April.  The rest of the army broke up, with men heading for home or attempting to escape abroad.

Some ranking Jacobites made their way to Loch nan Uamh, where Charles Edward Stuart had first landed at the outset of the campaign in 1745.  Here on 30 April they were met by the two French frigates—the Mars and Bellone.  Two days later the French warships were spotted and attacked by the smaller Royal Navy sloops, the Greyhound, Baltimore, and Terror.  The result was the last real battle in the campaign.  During the six hours in which the ferocious sea-battle raged the Jacobites recovered cargo on the beach which had been landed by the French ships.  In all £35,000 of gold was recovered along with supplies.  Invigorated by the vast amounts of loot and visible proof that the French had not deserted them some of the Highland chiefs decided to prolong the campaign.  On 8 May, nearby at Murlaggan, Lochiel, Lochgarry, Clanranald and Barisdale all agreed to rendezvous at Invermallie on 18 May.  The plan was that there they would be joined by what remained of Keppoch's men and Cluny Macpherson's regiment (which did not take part in the battle at Culloden).  However things did not go as planned.  After about a month of relative inactivity, Cumberland moved his regulars into the Highlands.  On 17 May three battalions of regulars and eight Highland companies reoccupied Fort Augustus.  The same day the Macphersons surrendered.  On the day of the planned rendezvous, Clanranald never appeared and Lochgarry and Barisdale only showed up with about 300 combined (most of who immediately dispersed in search of food). Lochiel, who commanded possibly the strongest Jacobite unit at Culloden, was only able to muster about 300.  The following morning Lochiel was alerted that a body of Highlanders was approaching.  Assuming they were Barisdale's Macdonalds, Locheil waited until they were identified as Loudoun's by the "red crosses in their bonnets".  Locheil's men dispersed without fighting however the damage was done and Cumberland had an excuse to venture deep into the Scottish Highlands.  The following week the Government launched punitive expeditions into the Highlands which continued on throughout the summer.

Following his flight from the battle, Charles Edward Stuart made his way towards the Hebrides with some supporters.  By 20 April Stuart reached Arisaig on the west coast of Scotland.  After spending a few days with his close associates, Stuart left most of them in a small boat and made way to the island of Benbecula in the Outer Hebrides.  From there he travelled to Scalpay, between the islands Harris and Lewis, and from there made his way to Stornoway.  For five months Stuart crisscrossed across the Hebrides, constantly pursued by Government supporters and under threat from local lairds, who were tempted to betray him for the £30,000 upon his head.  During this time he met Flora Macdonald, who famously aided him in a near escape to Skye.  Finally on 19 September Stuart reached Borrodale on Loch nan Uamh in Arisaig where his party boarded two small French ships which ferried them to France.  He never returned to Scotland.

The morning following the Battle of Culloden, Cumberland issued a written order reminding his men that "the public orders of the rebels yesterday were to give us no quarter".  Cumberland alluded to the belief that such orders had been found upon the bodies of fallen Jacobites.  In the days and weeks that followed, versions of the alleged orders were published in the Newcastle Journal and the Gentleman's Journal.  Today only one copy of the alleged order to "give no quarter" exists.  It is however considered to be nothing but a poor attempt of forgery, for it is neither written nor signed by Murray, and it appears on the bottom half of a copy of a declaration published in 1745. In any event, Cumberland's order was not carried out for two days, after which contemporary accounts report then that for the next two days the moor was searched and all those wounded were put to death.  One officer who refused to accept the order to kill the wounded was Thomas Wolfe, later the leader of the British forces on the Plains of Abraham.

In the aftermath of the battle, Government troops felt justified in giving no quarter to the wounded lying upon the moor.  The Jacobites' aborted night attack in the early hours of 16 April would no doubt have been as merciless.  Jacobite officers ordered their men to use only swords, dirks and bayonets, to overturn tents locate "a swelling or bulge in the fallen tent, there to strike and push vigorously".  In total, over 20,000 head of livestock, sheep, and goats were driven off and sold at Fort Augustus, where the soldiers split the profits.

While in Inverness, Cumberland emptied the gaols that were full of people imprisoned by Jacobite supporters, replacing them with Jacobites themselves.  Prisoners were taken south to England to stand trial for high treason.  Many were held on hulks on the Thames or in Tilbury Fort, and executions took place in Carlisle, York and Kennington Common.  The common Jacobite supporters fared better than the ranking individuals.  In total, 120 common men were executed, one third of them being deserters from the British Army.  The common prisoners drew lots amongst themselves and only one of out of twenty actually came to trial.  Although most those who did stand trial were sentenced to death, almost all of these had their sentences commuted to transportation to the British colonies for life.  In all, 936 men were thus transported, and 222 more were banished.  Even so, 905 prisoners were actually released under the Act of Indemnity which was passed in June 1747.  Another 382 obtained their freedom by being exchanged for prisoners of war who were held by France.  Of the total 3,471 prisoners recorded nothing is known of the fate of 648.  The high ranking "rebel lords" were executed on Tower Hill in London.

Following up on the military success won by their forces, the British Government enacted laws to incorporate Scotland — specifically the Scottish Highlands — within the rest of Britain.  Members of the Episcopalian clergy were required to gives oaths of allegiance to the reigning Hanoverian dynasty.  The Abolition of Heritable Jurisdictions Act of 1747 ended the hereditary right of landowners to govern justice upon their estates through barony courts.  Previous to this act, feudal lords (which included clan chiefs) had considerable judicial and military power over their followers—such as the oft quoted power of "pit and gallows".  Lords who were loyal to the Government were greatly compensated for the loss of these traditional powers, for example the Duke of Argyll was given £21,000.  The estates of those lords and clan chiefs who had supported the Jacobite rebellion were stripped from them and then sold with the profits used to further trade and agriculture in Scotland.  The forfeited estates were managed by factors.  Anti-clothing measures were taking against the highland dress by an Act of Parliament in 1746.  The result was that the wearing of tartan was banned from everyone in Scotland except as a uniform for officers and soldiers in the British Army and later landed men and their sons.

Leaving Culloden, we ask directions of the village wizard and are lead to Cawdor Castle of Shakespeare fame in the tragedy Macbeth.

Shakespeare's play Macbeth took liberties with the story of the historic Scottish King Macbeth, who ruled Scotland after his forces killed King Duncan of Scotland in battle (not assassination, as in the play).  The play, first written in 1606, drew from somewhat fanciful tales of King Macbeth written by the monk Andrew of Wyntoun (in Fife) in his Cronykil (completed in 1406).  Among the elements Shakespeare took from the monk's stories was the idea of the three prophesying weird sisters.

In the play, Shakespeare has the three sisters foretell that Macbeth, then Thane of Glamis, would become Thane of Cawdor and King thereafter.  Duncan, indeed, almost immediately thereafter makes Macbeth Thane of Cawdor.  Believing it necessary to accomplish the remainder of the prophecy, Macbeth and his Lady murder Duncan in his sleep, an act that leads to Macbeth's ultimate downfall.  In the play, the murder of Duncan takes place in Macbeth's castle in Inverness, not Castle Cawdor (hardly surprising, as Macbeth had only just been granted the title Thane of Cawdor and thus would not yet have made any castle in Cawdor his home).

Although the name Cawdor will forever connect this classic work of literature to Cawdor Castle, the castle did not exist during the lifetimes of Macbeth or Duncan, and the events of the play are almost wholly fictitious.  The castle's guidebook quotes the 5th Earl Cawdor (the 23rd Thane) as saying, presumably with some irony, "I wish the Bard had never written his damned play!"

Cawdor Castle is a tower house set amid gardens in the parish of Cawdor, approximately 10 miles east of Inverness and 5 miles southwest of Nairn.  It belonged to the Clan Calder.  It still serves as home to the Dowager Countess Cawdor, stepmother of Colin Robert Vaughan Campbell, 7th (and present) Earl Cawdor and 25th Thane of Cawdor.

At Cawdor Castle, I was able to drive a team of imaginary horses,

We listened to the piper at the entrance to the Castle,

And find out where Hamish is not allowed to park.

From Cawdor it’s off to Fort George.

Fort George is a large 18th century fortress near Ardersier, to the northeast ofInverness.  It was built to pacify the Scottish Highlands in the aftermath of the Jacobite rising of 1745, replacing an earlier Fort George built with the same aim after the 1715 Jacobite rising.  The fortress has never been attacked and has remained in continuous use as a garrison.

The fortification is based on a Star design, it remains virtually unaltered and nowadays is open to visitors while still serving as army barracks.  Originally the depot of the Seaforth Highlanders and later the Queen's Own Highlanders (Seaforth and Camerons), it was more recently home to the Royal Irish Regiment, and as of 2007, the new garrison of the Black Watch, 3rd Battalion, Royal Regiment of Scotland.

We depart for Nairn and Forres, traditionally believed to have been the home of both Duncan and Macbeth.  The real-world location of Brodie, located between Forres and Nairn, is thought to be the meeting place of Macbeth and the witches, commonly known as Macbeth's Hillock.  It is near Forres on the heath where the three witches meet Macbeth.

Brodie Castle was built in 1567 by Clan Brodie but destroyed by fire in 1645 by Lewis Gordon of Clan Gordon, the 3rd Marquess of Huntly.  It was greatly expanded in 1824 by the architect William Burn who turned it into a large mansion house in the Scots Baronial style.  The Brodie family called the castle home until the late 20th century.  It's widely accepted that the Brodies have been associated with the land the castle is built on since around 1160, when it is believed that King Malcom IV gave the land to the family.

In Forres we happen upon Sueno’s Stone.

Sueno's Stone stands over 6.5 metres high and is a Picto-Scottish Class III standing stone. It is the largest surviving Pictish stone of its type in Scotland.  Lady Ann Campbell, the Countess of Moray, is noted in the early 1700's as carrying out maintenance on the stone in an attempt to stabilise it.  This was achieved by constructing stepped plinths around the base and these are what can be seen today.  Archaeological excavations carried out in 1990 and 1991 suggest that it may originally have been one of two monumental stones.

Enough of the sites, we are hungry as horses and seek nourishment at the Crown and Anchor in Findhorn.

The Crown and Anchor Inn, dating from 1739, is the oldest surviving structure in the village.

Other prominent buildings of note include Findhorn House built in 1775, which is the home of the Royal Findhorn Yacht Club,

The Kimberley Inn,

the James Milne Institute,

The Universal Hall at the Findhorn Foundation

and the ice house Heritage Centre.

We spent a relaxing afternoon on the expansive beach at Findhorn before departing for the drive to MacDuff

 and the night at Monica And Martin's Bed And Breakfast.

Sunday, July 22, 2012

Day 10 – Tuesday, June 12th, 2012

Thurso to MacDuff, we thought!

But first I need to make a comment on the history of the Orkneys.  The Orkney Islands is an archipelago in northern Scotland, comprising approximately 70 islands of which 20 are inhabited.  The largest island is known as the "Mainland".  They fly their own flag closely related to the design of the Norwegian flag but red and yellow in colour.

The name "Orkney" dates back to the 1st century BC or earlier and the islands have been inhabited for at least 8,500 years.  Originally occupied by Mesolithic and Neolithic tribes and then by the Picts, Orkney was invaded and forcibly annexed by Norway in 875 and settled by the Norse.  It was subsequently annexed to the Scottish Crown in 1472, following the failed payment of a dowry for James III's bride, Margaret of Denmark.

A charred hazelnut shell, recovered in 2007 during excavations in Tankerness on the Mainland has been dated to 6820-6660 BC indicating the presence of Mesolithic nomadic tribes.  The earliest known permanent settlement is at Knap of Howar, a Neolithic farmstead on the island of Papa Westray, which dates from 3500 BC.

During the Roman invasion of Britain the "King of Orkney" was one of 11 British leaders who is said to have submitted to the Emperor Claudius in AD 43 at Colchester.  After the Agricolan fleet had come and gone, possibly anchoring at Shapinsay, direct Roman influence seems to have been limited to trade rather than conquest.

By the late Iron Age, Orkney was part of the Pictish kingdom, and although the archaeological remains from this period are less impressive there is every reason to suppose the fertile soils and rich seas of Orkney provided the Picts with a comfortable living.  However, before the Gaelic presence could establish itself the Picts were gradually dispossessed by the Norsemen from the late 8th century onwards.  The nature of this transition is controversial, and theories range from peaceful integration to enslavement and genocide.

Both Orkney and Shetland saw a significant influx of Norwegian settlers during the late 8th and early 9th centuries.

The martyrdom of Magnus Erlendsson, who was killed in April 1116 by his cousin Haakon Paulsson, resulted in the building of St. Magnus Cathedral, still today a dominating feature of Kirkwall.

In 1468 Orkney was pledged by Christian I, in his capacity as king of Norway, as security against the payment of the dowry of his daughter Margaret, betrothed to James III of Scotland.  As the money was never paid, the connection with the crown of Scotland has become perpetual.

The history of Orkney prior to this time is largely the history of the ruling aristocracy.  From now on the ordinary people emerge with greater clarity.  An influx of Scottish entrepreneurs helped to create a diverse and independent community that included farmers, fishermen and merchants that called themselves comunitas Orcadie and who proved themselves increasingly able to defend their rights against their feudal overlords.

From at least the 16th century, boats from mainland Scotland and the Netherlands dominated the local herring fishery.  There is little evidence of an Orcadian fleet until the 19th century but it grew rapidly and 700 boats were involved by the 1840s with Stronsay and then later Stromness becoming leading centres of development.  White fish never became as dominant as in other Scottish ports.

In the 17th century, Orcadians formed the overwhelming majority of employees of the Hudson's Bay Company in Canada.  The harsh climate of Orkney and the Orcadian reputation for sobriety and their boat handling skills made them ideal candidates for the rigours of the Canadian north.  During this period, burning kelp briefly became a mainstay of the islands' economy.

Agricultural improvements beginning in the 17th century resulted in the enclosure of the commons and ultimately in the Victoria era the emergence of large and well-managed farms using a five-shift rotation system and producing high quality beef cattle.

Also, I need to make comment on John rae as advised by Lord Doug Rae.

John Rae (Inuktitut: Aglooka, English: “He who takes long strides”; 30 September 1813 – 22 July 1893) was a Scottish doctor who explored Northern Canada, surveyed parts of the Northwest Passage and reported the fate of the Franklin Expedition.

Rae was born at the Hall of Clestrain in the parish of Orphir in Orkney.  After studying medicine at Edinburgh he went to work for the Hudson's Bay Company as a doctor, accepting a post as surgeon at Moose Factory, Ontario, where he remained for ten years.

Whilst working for the company, treating both European and indigenous employees of the company, Rae became known for his prodigious stamina and skilled use of snow shoes.  He learned to live off the land like the Inuit and working with the local craftsmen, designed his own snow shoes.  This knowledge allowed him to travel great distances with little equipment and few followers, unlike many other explorers of the Victorian Age.

In 1844–45, wanting to learn how to survey, Rae walked 1200 miles over two months in the winter forest, a feat that earned him the Inuit nickname Aglooka, "he who takes long strides."  In 1846 Rae went on his first expedition and in 1848 joined Sir John Richardson in searching for the Northwest Passage.

By 1849 Rae was in charge of the Mackenzie River district at Fort Simpson.  He was soon called upon to head north again, this time in search of two missing ships from the Franklin Expedition.  While exploring the Boothia Peninsula in 1854 Rae made contact with local Inuit, from whom he obtained much information about the fate of the lost naval expedition.  His report to the British Admiralty carried shocking and unwelcome evidence that cannibalism had been a last resort for some of the survivors.  When it was leaked to the Press, Franklin's widow Lady Jane Franklin was outraged and recruited many important supporters, among them Charles Dickens who wrote several pamphlets condemning Rae for daring to suggest British Naval sailors would have resorted to cannibalism.

In 1860 Rae worked on the telegraph line to America, visiting Iceland and Greenland.  In 1864 he made a further telegraph survey in the west of Canada.  In 1884 at age 71 he was again working for the Hudson's Bay Company, this time as an explorer of the Red River for a proposed telegraph line from the United States to Russia.

John Rae died from an aneurysm in London on 22 July 1893.  A week later his body arrived in Orkney. He was buried in the kirkyard of St Magnus' Cathedral, Kirkwall.  A memorial to him is inside the cathedral.

The outcome of Lady Franklin's efforts to glorify the dead of the Franklin expedition meant Rae was shunned somewhat by the British establishment.  Although he found the last link in the much-sought-after Northwest Passage Rae was never awarded a Knighthood, nor was he remembered at the time of his death, dying quietly in London.  In comparison fellow Scot and contemporary explorer David Livingstone was knighted and buried with full imperial honours in Westminster Abbey.

Historians have since studied Rae's expeditions and his roles in finding the Northwest Passage and learning the fate of Franklin's crews.  Authors such as Ken McGoogan have noted Rae was willing to adopt and learn the ways of indigenous Arctic peoples, which made him stand out as the foremost specialist of his time in cold-climate survival and travel.  Rae also respected Inuit customs, traditions and skills, which went against the beliefs of many 19th century Europeans that most native peoples were primitive and of little educational value.

In July 2004, Orkney and Shetland MP Alistair Carmichael introduced into the UK Parliament a motion proposing, inter alia, that the House "regrets that Dr Rae was never awarded the public recognition that was his due".  In March 2009 he introduced a further motion urging Parliament to formally state it "regrets that memorials to Sir John Franklin outside the Admiralty headquarters and inside Westminster Abbey still inaccurately describe Franklin as the first to discover the [North West] passage, and calls on the Ministry of Defence and the Abbey authorities to take the necessary steps to clarify the true position.

We departed Thurso after breakfast and took a series of back roads meandering towards Wick, arriving in time for a morning coffee break.

Wick's history stretches back, at least, to the era of Norwegian rule in Caithness, which ended, conclusively, in 1266's Treaty of Perth.

Little is known of the early history of this Northern Scottish town but there is ample evidence in the surrounding countryside of Neolithic/Bronze Age settlement and the shelters and defences of succeeding Ages.  However, it was the Vikings that gave Wick its name (from the old Norse vik meaning bay).
Although King James the VI of Scotland made Wick a Royal Burgh in 1589 it was not until the beginning of the 19th century that the town began to realise its potential.  By 1860 it had grown to be Europe's premier herring fishing port.  The town's development around the fickle fortunes of fishing is a remarkable story of vision, good planning, investment, courage, hardship and industry.

Pulteneytown is an area of Wick on the south side of the River Wick.  Until 1902 Pulteneytown was administered separately from Wick.  Pulteneytown takes its name from Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet, a governor of the British Fisheries Society.  In the early years of the 19th century Sir William commissioned Britain's leading civil engineer, Thomas Telford, to design and supervise the creation of a major new herring fishing town and harbour at the estuary of the River Wick.  Pulteneytown was so named after the death of Sir William in 1805 and became a major player in the 19th century herring boom.  It was built in order to supply work to the Gaels evicted during the Highland Clearances.  During this boom period the harbour was expanded still further by local shipbuilder James Bremner.  History of this era is preserved in the collections of Wick Heritage Museum.

After a delicious coffee, scone and fresh jam, it was off to Inverness.

The Castle of Old Wick is on the coast 1km south of the town.  The Castle of Old Wick dates to the 12th century, and is one of the best preserved Norse fortifications in all of Scotland.

Our first stop after Wick was the Camster Cairns.  Located 8 miles southwest of Wick, the Camster Cairns are amongst the best-preserved Neolithic chambered cairns in the British Isles.  Known as the Grey Cairns of Camster, they comprise a round cairn, a long cairn and a ruined third cairn lying 200m apart.  Built around 3500BC, the cairns are thought to have been in use as burial chambers and as ritual sites for several hundred years thereafter.  Both cairns are of dry-stone construction, the round cairn is 18m in diameter and 3.7m high and the long cairn is 69.5m long and 16.8m wide.

The cairns were excavated in 1865 and pottery, skeletons, burnt bone and flint tools were recovered from the round cairn.  There is one central chamber in the round cairn, which retains its original roof, and two burial chambers in the long cairn.  Modern excavations were completed on the long cairn in 1980 and its collapsed roof has recently been replaced with fibreglass with sky-lights which allow light into the interior.  The walls, which had been plundered to build a nearby sheep-pen, were restored using original materials.  The cairn complex is now in the care of Historic Scotland.

Leaving the Cairns we drove to Dunrobin Castle.

Dunrobin Castle is a stately home in Sutherland.  It is the seat of the Countess of Sutherland and the Clan Sutherland.  It is located 1 mile north of Golspie on the Dornoch Firth.  Dunrobin's origins lie in the Middle Ages, but most of the present building is the work of Sir Charles Barry, the architect of the Palace of Westminster in London, who greatly extended the building in 1845.  The resulting house has a "French Renaissance meets Scots Baronial" style.

The lands of Sutherland were acquired before 1211, by Hugh, Lord of Duffus, grandson of the Flemish nobleman, Freskin.  The Earldom of Sutherland was created around 1230 for Hugh's son, William, and the first record of a castle on this site dates to 1401.  It may have been built on the site of an early medieval fort (hence, the dun in the place-name).  The earliest castle was a square keep with few, and small, windows.  The Earldom passed to the Gordon family in the 16th century.

During the Jacobite Rising of 1745, the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart stormed Dunrobin Castle without warning, because the Clan Sutherland supported the British government.  The 17th Earl of Sutherland, who had changed his surname from Gordon to Sutherland, narrowly escaped them, exiting through a back door.  He sailed for Aberdeen where he joined the Duke of Cumberland's army.  On the death of the 18th Earl in 1766, the house passed to his daughter, Elizabeth, who married the politician George Leveson-Gower, later created 1st Duke of Sutherland.

Since 1973 the house and grounds have been open to the public, with private accommodation retained for the use of the Sutherland family.  However I refused to pay an entry fee after reading about the Sutherlands participation in the Highland “clearances”.

The Highland Clearances was the forced displacement of a significant number of people in the Scottish Highlands during the 18th and 19th century, as a result of an agricultural revolution (also known as enclosure) carried out by hereditary aristocratic landowners, such as the Duke of Sutherland.  The changes were seen to be supported by the government, who gave financial aid for roads and bridges to assist the new sheep-based agriculture and trade.  There was mass forced emigration to the sea coast, the Scottish Lowlands, and the North American colonies.  The clearances were particularly notorious as a result of the late timing, the lack of legal protection for year-by-year tenants under Scots law, the abruptness of the change from the traditional clan system, and the brutality of many evictions.

The enclosures that depopulated rural England in the British Agricultural Revolution started much earlier, during theTudor period, and similar developments in Scotland have lately been called the Lowland Clearances by historians such as Tom Devine.  But in the Highlands the impact on a Goidelic (Scottish Gaelic)-speaking semi-feudal culture that still expected obligations of a chief to his clan led to vocal campaigning and a lingering bitterness among the descendants of those forced to emigrate or to remain in crofting townships on very small areas of poor farming land.  Crofters became a source of virtually free labour to their landlords, being forced to work long hours in such work as harvesting and processing of kelp.

From the late 16th century, laws required clan leaders to appear in Edinburgh regularly to provide bonds for the conduct of anyone in their territory.  This created a tendency among chiefs to see themselves as landlords.  The lesser clan-gentry increasingly took up droving, taking cattle along the old unpaved drove roads to sell in the Lowlands.  This brought wealth and land ownership within the clan, though the Highlands continued to be overpopulated and poor.

The Jacobite Risings brought repeated British government efforts to curb the clans, culminating after the 1746 Battle of Culloden with brutal repression.  The Act of Proscription of 1746 incorporating the Dress Act required all swords to be surrendered to the government and prohibited the wearing of tartans or kilts.  The Tenures Abolition Act 1660 ended the feudal bond of military service and the Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed the virtually sovereign power the chiefs held over their clan.  The extent of enforcement of the prohibitions varied and related to a clan's support of the government during the rebellion, but over all led to the destruction of the traditional clan system and of the supportive social structures of small agricultural townships.

From about 1725, in the aftermath of the first Jacobite Rising, Highlanders had begun emigrating to the Americas in increasing numbers.  The Disarming Act of 1746 and the Clan Act made ineffectual attempts to subdue the Scottish Highlands, and eventually troops were sent in.  Government garrisons were built or extended in the Great Glen at Fort William, Kiliwhimin (later renamed Fort Augustus) and Fort George, Inverness, as well as barracks at Ruthven, Bernera and Inversnaid, linked to the south by the Wade roads (constructed for Major-General George Wade).  These had the effect of limiting organisational travel and choking off news and further isolated the clans.  Nevertheless, conditions remained unsettled for the whole decade.

In 1725 General Wade raised the independent companies of the Black Watch as a militia force to keep peace in the unruly Highlands.  This increased exodus of Highlanders to the Americas.  Increasing demand in Britain for cattle and sheep and the creation of new breeds of sheep such as the black-faced, which could be reared in the mountainous country, allowed higher rents for landowners and chiefs to meet the costs of their aristocratic lifestyle.  As a result, families living on a subsistence level were displaced, exacerbating the unsettled social climate.  In 1792 tenant farmers from Strathrusdale led a protest against the policy by driving over 6,000 sheep off the land surrounding Ardross.  This action was dealt with at the highest levels in government, with the Home Secretary Henry Dundas getting involved.  The Black Watch was mobilised; it halted the drive and brought the ringleaders to trial.  They were found guilty, but later escaped custody and disappeared.

What became known as the Clearances were considered by the landlords as necessary "improvements".  They are thought to have been begun by Admiral John Ross of Balnagowan Castle in 1762.  MacLeod of MacLeod(i.e. the chief of MacLeod) began experimental work on Skye in 1732.  Chiefs engaged Lowland, or sometimes English, factors with expertise in more profitable sheep farming, and they "encouraged", sometimes forcibly, the population to move off suitable land.

Another wave of mass emigration came in 1792, known as the "Year of the Sheep" to Scottish Highlanders.  The people were accommodated in poor crofts or small farms in coastal areas where farming could not sustain the communities and they were expected to take up fishing.  In the village of Badbea in Caithness the conditions were so harsh that, while the women worked, they had to tether their livestock and even their children to rocks or posts to prevent them being blown over the cliffs.  Others were put directly onto emigration ships to Nova Scotia (Antigonish and Pictou counties and later Cape Breton), the Glengarry and Kingston areas of Ontario and the Carolinas of the American colonies.  There may have been a religious element in these forced removals since many Highlanders were Roman Catholic.  This is reflected by the majority representation of Catholics in areas and towns of Nova Scotia such as Antigonish and Cape Breton.  However almost all of the very large movement of Highland settlers to the Cape Fear region of North Carolina were Presbyterian.

In 1807 Elizabeth Gordon, 19th Countess of Sutherland, touring her inheritance with her husband Lord Stafford (later made Duke of Sutherland), wrote that "he is seized as much as I am with the rage of improvements, and we both turn our attention with the greatest of energy to turnips".  As well as turning land over to sheep farming, Stafford planned to invest in creating a coal pit, salt pans, brick and tile works and herring fisheries.  That year his agents began the evictions, and 90 families were forced to leave their crops in the ground and move their cattle, furniture and timbers to the land they were offered 20 miles away on the coast, living in the open until they had built themselves new houses.  Stafford's first Commissioner, William Young, arrived in 1809, and soon engaged Patrick Sellar as his factor who pressed ahead with the process while acquiring sheep farming estates for himself.

Elsewhere, the flamboyant Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell of Glengarry portrayed himself as the last genuine specimen of the true Highland Chief while his tenants were subjected to a process of relentless eviction.

To landlords, "improvement" and "clearance" did not necessarily mean depopulation.  At least until the 1820s, when there were steep falls in the price of kelp, landlords wanted to create pools of cheap or virtually free labour, supplied by families subsisting in new crofting townships.  Kelp collection and processing was a very profitable way of using this labour, and landlords petitioned successfully for legislation designed to stop emigration.  This took the form of the Passenger Vessels Act 1803.  Attitudes changed during the 1820s and, for many landlords, the potato famine which began in 1846 became another reason for encouraging or forcing emigration and depopulation.

As in Ireland, the potato crop failed in the mid nineteenth century, and a widespread outbreak of cholera further weakened the Highland population.  The ongoing clearance policy resulted in starvation, deaths, and a secondary clearance, when families either migrated voluntarily or were forcibly evicted.  There were many deaths of children and old people.  As there were few alternatives, people emigrated, joined the British army, or moved to growing urban centres such as Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee in Lowland Scotland and Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Liverpool in the north of England.  In places some people were given economic incentives to move, but few historians dispute that in many instances landlords used violent methods.
Donald McLeod, a Sutherland crofter, later wrote about the events he witnessed:

The consternation and confusion were extreme.  Little or no time was given for the removal of persons or property; the people striving to remove the sick and the helpless before the fire should reach them; next, struggling to save the most valuable of their effects.  The cries of the women and children, the roaring of the affrighted cattle, hunted at the same time by the yelling dogs of the shepherds amid the smoke and fire, altogether presented a scene that completely baffles description — it required to be seen to be believed.

A dense cloud of smoke enveloped the whole country by day, and even extended far out to sea.  At night an awfully grand but terrific scene presented itself — all the houses in an extensive district in flames at once.  I myself ascended a height about eleven o'clock in the evening, and counted two hundred and fifty blazing houses, many of the owners of which I personally knew, but whose present condition — whether in or out of the flames — I could not tell.  The conflagration lasted six days, till the whole of the dwellings were reduced to ashes or smoking ruins.  During one of these days a boat actually lost her way in the dense smoke as she approached the shore, but at night was enabled to reach a landing-place by the lurid light of the flames.

Accounts like those of McLeod and General David Stewart of Garth brought widespread condemnation and The Highland Land League eventually achieved land reform in the enactment of Crofting Acts, but these could not bring economic viability and came too late at a time when the land was already suffering from depopulation.

It was only in the mid-nineteenth century that the second, more brutal phase of the Clearances began; this was well after the 1822 visit by George IV, when lowlanders set aside their previous distrust and hatred of the Highlanders and identified with them as national symbols.  However, the cumulative effect was particularly devastating to the cultural landscape of Scotland in a way that did not happen in other areas of Britain.

Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, Duchess of Sutherland, and her husband George Leveson-Gower, 1st Duke of Sutherland, conducted brutal clearances between 1811 and 1820.  Evictions at the rate of 2,000 families in one day were not uncommon.  Many starved and froze to death where their homes had once been.  The Duchess of Sutherland, on seeing the starving tenants on her husband's estate, remarked in a letter to a friend in England, "Scotch people are of happier constitution and do not fatten like the larger breed of animals."
While the collapse of the clan system can be attributed more to economic factors and the repression that followed the Battle of Culloden, the widespread evictions resulting from the Clearances severely affected the viability of the Highland population and culture.  To this day, the population in the Scottish Highlands is sparse and the culture is diluted, and there are many more sheep than people.

However, the Clearances did result in significant emigration of Highlanders to North America and Australasia— where today are found considerably more descendants of Highlanders than in Scotland itself.
One estimate for Cape Breton, Nova Scotia has 25,000 Gaelic-speaking Scots arriving as immigrants between 1775 and 1850.  At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were an estimated 100,000 Gaelic speakers in Cape Breton, but because of economic migration to English-speaking areas and the lack of Gaelic education in the Nova Scotian school system, the numbers of Gaelic speakers fell dramatically.  By the beginning of the 21st century, the number of native Gaelic speakers had fallen to well below 1,000.

A major destination for these emigrants in the 18th century was Glengarry County, an a original settlement for Highland Scots in what is now present-day eastern Ontario.  Gaelic was the native tongue of the settlement in which thousands of people spoke the language throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.  However, the number of native speakers has decreased since in result of English and French migration throughout the county.  In respect for their and their ancestors' Scottish culture, the county hosts the annual Glengarry Highland Games, one of the biggest Highland Games gatherings of its kind outside Scotland.

From Dunrobin Castle it was off to Dornock for a brief stop to admire the beautiful sand beach.

After starting up we had some trouble with the clutch of the rental car and had to pull off the highway between Tore and Inverness.  After 2 hours we were met by AA and driven to the rental dealer in Inverness with the vehicle loaded behind.  A quick exchange of vehicles and a decision to stay the night in Inverness took us to The Alexander Guest House.

The Alexander is located very centrally in Inverness, immediately overlooking the river, opposite the Cathedral and close to the Castle. It is a five minute walk to the City Centre.

The Alexander has a very contemporary feel; subtle colours have been used throughout to create a light and airy mood and to complement the elegant layout of the Georgian rooms to give that real “home from home” in the Highlands.

We dined at Nicos Seafood Restaurant, next to The Alexander and then off to bed.